There were many female workers in Puerto Rico in the textile and tobacco industries that were the main national industries at that time. The bibliographical sources selected provide a multi-disciplinary approach to researching the subject.

Stunning Details About Puerto Rico Women Revealed

They also didn’t know that the medication, which contained much higher doses of hormones than modern-day birth control pills, was in an experimental stage or that it carried negative side effects. About 17 percent of the women in the study complained of nausea, dizziness, headaches, stomach pain, and vomiting, while three participants died. The deaths of the women were not investigated, and Pincus and Rock dismissed continued the complaints as psychosomatic. It’s small compared to many other Latin American countries where the number is 4 or 5. The birthrate decreased more than 40 % in the past 20 years in the Latin American and Caribbean area. It contrasts with African countries where the population is increasing. Puerto Rico, the same as Cuba, shows a very low average number of children that one woman would have in her life, 2.2 ( ).

In Puerto Rico, fertility control developed under colonialism in the early 20th century, after the Caribbean archipelago had been seized by the United States in the Spanish-American War of 1898. The colonial governments in Puerto Rico and the contiguous U.S. were filled with people who believed these philosophies, and the archipelago was deemed overpopulated, specifically by a citizenry of impoverished and thus “inferior” Black and brown people. To solve the alleged problem, government officials instituted policies that, among other things, reduced births through sterilization.

For instance, IUDs can cost more than $1,000, while monthly fees for contraceptives like the pill, the patch or the ring can range from $10 to $150 a month. Even more, abortion care, which is barred from federal funding due to the Hyde amendment, ranges between $275 to $2,400, depending on the term of the pregnancy. Nevertheless, by 1960, Enovid, though tested on women without their informed consent, was approved by the FDA and available across the U.S.

Puerto Rican production, where the political documentary has dominated, the experimental short has produced some of the best pieces of women’s filmmaking. In this section, I would like to refer to the work of pioneer Poli Marichal and young visual film/video makers Mari Mater O’Neill and Mayra Ortiz. Them are at least two strategies used in the film to bring about this effect. The film does not, despite some of the assessments made about it, talk either about women’s resistance to the policy of massive sterilization or the reasons why women were chosen as the target of the policy.

The funds lasted only two years; then in 1936 the private Maternal and Childcare Health Association opened 23 clinics. Women first organized and collectively fought for suffrage at the national level in July of 1848. Suffragists such as Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott convened a meeting of over 300 people in Seneca Falls, New York. In the following decades, women marched, protested, lobbied, and even went to jail. By the 1870s, women pressured Congress to vote on an amendment that would recognize their suffrage rights.

The government started a new industrialization policy and national economic growth increased rapidly. It was a time of rapid economic growth in the 1950s when the advance of industrialization caused rapid urbanization in Puerto Rico. After the 1960s, urban housing, car society and consumer society appeared. Women were being educated more highly, women’s opportunities for economic independence were increasing, and they started to work as professionals and also started to work in the political area. This transformation of female roles in the society converted the women’s identity from being associated only with the home to being a producer.

In 1977 a women’s conference was held in Puerto Rico in response to the first world conference on women in Mexico City in 1975. So the appearance of new feminism in the country and the international atmosphere regarding women’s affairs forced the government to respond to women’s issues. In the 1980s, centers or departments for women’s studies were being established at universities. Women’s studies and education about sex discrimination were promoted. And it’s a characteristic of Puerto Rican women’s history that the Puerto Rican women’s social position has changed drastically entering the 20th century in connection to the American society. At the same time, it means that there has been a risk of being involved in the debate about political status when the women are tackling sex discrimination in Puerto Rico. We can say that Puerto Rican women’s social position has been established based on Puerto Rican society on the one hand and the influence of being a part of US society on the other.

Questionable Puerto Rican Girl Methods Exploited

Relating to female education in 19th century in Puerto Rico, a famous example of equal opportunity in education between sexes was the establishment of a school for girls by Ms. Celestina Cordero. Also in the latter half of 19th century, the Committee of Ladies of Honor of the Economical Society of Amigo de Puerto Rico or the Association of Ladies for the Instruction of Women , these organizations endeavored to improve female education. But it was only after the 20th century that the greater mass of women had come to be able to have an education. After 1900, the US authority started the policy that would spread public education and attempted to substantially improve the education system. With this policy, many children received education and the opportunity of getting education for women increased drastically. The number of women who could receive education was few in the 19th century but it peaked sharply in the 20th century.

In 1924, Milagros Benet who was a member of the Suffragist Social League and the president of the Women’s Pan- American Association (Asociacion Pan-Americana de Mujeres) also sued the Board of Inscription. This case was also lost, but the cases were meaningful in revealing legal sex discrimination. After these cases Puerto Rican suffrage groups went to the US looking for support of their suffrage cause. The Suffragist Social League (P.R.) affiliated with the National Woman’s Party and the Association of Puerto Rican Women Suffragists (Asociacion Puertorriquena de Mujeres Sufragistas, P.R.) affliated with the National Association of Women Voters . As a result of their lobbying, the US Congress proposed an amendment to a bill. But finally, at the request of US appointed Governor Towner, the legislative assembly of Puerto Rico recognized the right to vote for literate women to avoid the appearance of US government control of the suffrage issue in Puerto Rican politics. All women were enfranchised in 1935 at the intense demand of the labor movement.